JUPEB ( 2019 ) Literature In English Past Questions And Answers.

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King Lear Theme:
Appearance Versus Reality
False appearances and underlying truth play against each other throughout the play.

At the start of the play, Lear believes his older daughters’ false and sycophantic professions of love and he rewards them with his kingdom. He equally foolishly banishes his truthful daughter Cordelia and his close ally Kent. He is fooled by appearances and cannot recognize true faithfulness and love.

In Act 1, Scene 2, Edmond hatches a plan to discredit his brother Edgar. Edmond is fiercely jealous of Edgar because Edgar is legitimate and has a higher social status. The illegitimate Edmond deceitfully discredits Edgar’s character to their father Gloucester.

Gloucester rejects his son Edgar based on a forged letter written by his lying son Edmond in Act 2, Scene 1. Again, we have an instance of a father believing the false appearances and being blind to the truth. Gloucester is later blinded quite literally and told he has been betrayed by Edmond himself, not Edgar.


Charles Dickens
Hard Times by Charles Dickens is a book that dives into the world of Coketown, a fictional town that has a lot of interesting characters. Each character gives you a unique perspective towards any situation that happens in the book. Whether Mr. Gradgrind is shoving facts down your throat or Mr. Boundarby boasting about his rise to riches; the novel will keep you wanting more. With that said, Hard Times makes you feel different emotions. I know that when I was reading the novel I felt angry, sad, joyful, and was honestly relieved towards the end of it. [tags: Hard Times, Charles Dickens, Gradgrind, Family]


Hardlines by Adeoti x-rays the daring nature of the truth in a society where the political system and social institutions are in a shambles and the leaders in positions of authority are doing nothing to salvage the unpleasant situation. The country is enmeshed in mischief and all sorts of indignity. Adeoti reveals how hard it is to voice the naked truth about the dwindling fortune of his homeland, Nigeria, where deceit, lies, pretence and all manners of corrupt practices hold sway. Hence, the truth tends to be bitter and hard to admit, especially when it is blunt.

The first stanza begins with a metaphor that directly compares the truth with “bitter pills hard to swallow with laughter”. Such hardlines are very difficult to accept with an accommodating disposition. To escape from such burdensome truth, is like when someone intends to provide succour to a raging thirst by licking a running sore, instead of drinking water. And so the “embers of thirst” remains unquenched. The bitter truth lingers and stays in the mind for a long time haunting the soul.

When “some lines” are said, they are like wet rocks “hard on the tongue” although it has been “moistened”. It is hard to voice such adulterated truth when the attitude of the recipient may be hostile to things like that. The nature of such truth is described as a “breakfast of toad/ spiced with roasted c**kroaches/ washed down with stale wine/ mixed with mucus and urine.” Imagine such a disgusting diet in the mouth of its recipient. Definitely, it will be “hard to swallow with laughter”. But that is the nature of the truth when it is honestly said without fear or favour. People hardly accept it since the human nature loves to be pampered with flattery and well-spiced lies entwisted in vainglory.

In the poet’s homeland, Nigeria, lack of home truth has become a deficiency to the political leaders because they only surround themselves with bootlickers who only sing their praises, avoiding the truth and telling them the sweet-lies they want to hear while the country is teetering at the brink of regression.

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