2022 NECO HISTORY OBJECTIVE & ESSAY ANSWERS BY E-CLASS TEAM
Answer four questions in all, at least one from each section.
Most Nupe are farmers, and the staple crops are millet, guinea-corn, yams, rice, and groundnuts. Cassava, maize, and sweet potatoes (grown inland) are of secondary importance.
The large proportion of seasonally flooded (fadama) land has allowed a greater emphasis on growing rice, sugarcane, and onions. This has encouraged the establishment of commercial growing and refining of sugar at Bacita.
The Nupe practice hoe agriculture, using a large, heavy hoe called a zuku and a small hoe called dugba. The Nupe system of agriculture is based on shifting cultivation combined with rotation of crops.
The low population densities and less intense form of agriculture allowed more of the original savanna to survive, and woodland products are significant, particularly from the shea-butter tree and the locust-bean tree.
There are many fishermen in the villages on the banks of the Niger and Kaduna rivers and their tributaries. Cattle raising is engaged in by the Bororo Fulani, who move their herds from one pasture to another as necessity dictates
Social and political organization of pre-colonial Izon (Ijaw) society
Generally, the Ijo are regarded as a non centralized group. Ikime (1980) has characterized the Ijo political system as that of a fragmented society in which the village group made up of people who claim descent from a given ancestor through the male line constitutes the bases of governance Essentially, the village is divided into quarters which are lineage groups usually founded by the various sons of the founder of the village.
Each quarter is in turn made up of extended families each of which normally lives within a definite compound. In such a compound would be a man and his wives as well as grown-up sons and their wives and children. The compound represents the smallest unit of political and social organization amongst the Ijo.
Writing of the political structure among the western Ijo-our area of study, Alagoa as quoted by Okpevra (2005) informs that: ” the oldest man is automatically the head of the village community. He becomes the Ama-Okosowei, town-elder and Chairman of the village council, Amagula.
The executive duties of the village council, Amagula, were, however, performed by a younger leader, the Ogulasuowei or spokesman. And in
religious matters too, each village had its priest, Orukarowei, and the ethnic unit, Ibe, comprising a number of villages, had a chief priest, Pere.
The Pere presided over the annual gathering of the Ibe members at the shine of the group god. The Ama-Okosowei’s village administration was the unit of political organization in the western Delta, the ties of the Ibe consisting of a common dialect, usually a common group god, and the belief in
On the whole, the basic Ijo political system in pre-colonial times was a stateless organization based on the autonomous settlement, devoid of a centralizing force.
The activities of Royal Niger Company in the administration of Nigeria before 1899
In 1885 Sir George Goldie’s National African Company, an amalgamation of British companies, signed treaties with the Nigerian emirs of Sokoto and Gando (1885) by which it hoped to secure access to the Benue River and to Lake Chad—an avenue of expansion that the Germans, operating from the Cameroons, were preparing to close.
In 1886 the company received a charter of incorporation as the Royal Niger Company and was authorized to administer the Niger delta and the country on the banks of the Niger and Benue rivers. It engaged in a three-way struggle—with the French to the west and the Germans to the southeast—for the trade of the central Sudan.
The company imposed prohibitive dues on the people of Brass, in the Niger delta, who wished to trade at their traditional markets in the company’s territory, and it incurred such hostility that in 1895 its establishment at Akassa was attacked. In the north, it did not manage to subdue the Fulani empire, but it did conquer several emirates and compelled them to recognize its suzerainty.
The continuation of the company’s commercial and territorial disputes with France, together with continuing complaints from the people of Brass, led to the transference of the company’s charter to the imperial British government on Dec. 31, 1899.
The attempt by the Portuguese missionaries at Christianizing the people of Benin and Warri failed due to their interest in trade and commerce than mission.
In Benin and Warri, J.F. Ade Ajayi expresses that the religion at the beginning of the 14th century was ineffective. He describes the nonchalant attitude of the Oba of Benin who asked that Portuguese missionaries be sent to Benin and when they arrived, he was busy fighting a war in 1515. He dismissed them and suggested that they could return when he had much time that he could spare on leisure. When they returned in 1538, the king was no more interested in the religion. Due to this, traditional religion went on and even spread in Benin, and subsequently, Benin’s relationship with the white men dwindled greatly. Another effort towards Christianizing Benin came in the middle of the seventeenth century by the Spanish and Italian Capuchins. They speculated that winning the heart of the Oba whom his subjects so much adored might mean winning the hearts of all the subjects, as they would definitely obey him in whatever circumstances. They were however disappointed to be denied access to the king as they saw him only twice-in ten months and they were caged in the rooms provided for them. When they became too much adventurous in 1651 by trying to interrupt a traditional festival involving the use of human being as sacrificial material, they were deported.
The Warri axis of the Niger-Delta did not also prove promising though in 1570, the Olu of Warri was excited about the Christian faith by allowing one of his sons named Domingos sent to Portugal to be educated. The only benefit from this association was that the Warri rulers from 1570-1733 became professing Christians. So Christianity was curtailed to the palace. People were afraid to take their children out for baptism, as they believed that a baptized child would die prematurely. The Christian ritual about marriage was not having any influence on the people and circumcision rites in the traditional way remained. To crown it all, there were no regular supply of clergy to administer the sacraments that held very significantly in the Catholic Church. What we could say about this formation in Warri is that at least Christian shadow could be seen in the region and the word “Christianity” was already known and mumbled at least among the rulers.
An unforgettable event occurred across the ancient Hausa land in 1804 when Usman dan Fodio launched a jihad war that overran almost all northern and some parts of Yoruba land. After about one hundred and ten years of that jihad, precisely in 1914, the colonial government unified both the ancient Hausa states and all the parts that were conquered by the jihad with other tribes that never knew about the jihad to produce the present day Nigerian state. About forty six years after that unification, Nigeria secured the so-called independence from her colonial masters. In spite of its deficiencies, the unilateral amalgamation was sustained by Nigerians with the aim of having a nation state like other progressive nations of the world, where all avenues should be exploited to make her an economically strong and virile nation. A place where like the Independence National Anthem acknowledged and reflected; “though tribe and tongue may differ, in brotherhood we stand”. Many of the citizens yearned for a united country where tribes and tongues may naturally differ, yet live in peace and harmony as one united and indivisible country. A country where people can stand for brotherhood and be proud to serve their sovereign motherland as symbolized in the Green-White- Green of the national flag, that signifies Peace, Justice and Prosperity. Incidentally, this was echoed by the preface of the Nigerian 1999 Constitution as amended in 2011, “we the people of the Federal Republic of Nigeria having firmly and solemnly resolved to live in unity and harmony as one indivisible and indissoluble sovereign nation under God.
(i) Nigeria has been able to contribute towards the annual budget of the ECOWAS
(ii) Nigeria has supplied petroleum products to some ECOWAS countries at concessionary prices e.g. Senegal, Ghana and Sierra Leone;
(iii) Nigeria has provided military training facilities at the Defense Academy to students from member states;
(iv) On several occasions Nigeria has written off debts of member countries arising from under lifting Nigeria’s crude oil to those countries
(v) to facilitate commerce and trade, Nigeria has undertaken the construction of roads linking up member states e.g. Lagos – Contonou highway;
(vi) Nigeria on July 1986 donated a substantial amount to be used for the construction of a permanent secretariat headquarters in Abuja
(vii) Nigeria has provided personnel to the ECOWAS secretariat
(viii) Nigeria has regularly attended ECOWAS Summits and Heads of government meetings;
(ix) Nigeria participated in ECOWAS sports and cultural activities, etc.