NECO 2023 Food And Nutrition {Objective & Essay} Questions And Answers.

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Food additives are substances added to food to enhance its flavor, texture, appearance or shelf life. They can be synthetic or derived from natural sources and include preservatives, colorants, flavor enhancers, stabilizers, thickeners, and emulsifiers. Food additives are used in processed, packaged foods, and restaurant foods to maintain their quality and appeal to consumers. Some food additives have been linked to health issues, which is why regulatory agencies such as the FDA require safety testing and labeling of additives.
(i)Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
(ii)Sodium nitrite

(i)Source: Beef comes from cattle whereas poultry comes from birds such as chicken, turkey, and duck.

(ii)Nutritional content: Beef is generally higher in calories and fat content compared to poultry. Poultry is leaner and contains less fat and more protein, making it a good choice for those looking for a low-calorie, high-protein diet. Additionally, beef is a rich source of iron and zinc while poultry is rich in vitamin B12.

(i)Wash your hands
(ii)Cleaning and Sanitizing

Bile – Bile plays a crucial role in digestion by emulsifying fats and breaking them down into smaller particles that can be easily absorbed by the body. It is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder before being released into the small intestine.

Insulin – Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates glucose metabolism in the body by helping cells absorb sugar from the blood. It plays an important role in digestion by controlling the uptake and utilization of glucose by the body’s cells, which is essential for providing energy to the body.

(i)Both steaming and boiling use water as a cooking medium. In steaming, food is cooked by the hot steam generated from boiling water, while in boiling, food is cooked in hot water.

(ii)Both cooking methods are relatively quick and simple, and they are ideal for cooking vegetables, grains, and seafood. They are also healthy cooking methods that help preserve the nutritional value of the food being prepared.

A hostess is a woman who is responsible for receiving and entertaining guests in her home or at a social event. She is responsible for ensuring that her guests are comfortable, have access to refreshments, and are enjoying themselves. A hostess may plan and organize parties or events, manage the guest list, and take care of the decor and other details.

Entertainment refers to activities or events that are designed to provide amusement enjoyment or relaxation to individuals or a group of people. It includes various forms such as watching movies, playing sports, attending concerts, or engaging in hobbies

Food budgeting is the process of planning and managing one’s expenses related to food. It involves setting a specific amount of money to be spent on groceries and dining out and then making choices and decisions within that budget.

Pasteurization is the process of heating liquids like milk juice or other beverages to a specific temperature for a certain amount of time to kill or deactivate harmful microorganisms such as bacteria viruses or parasites.

(i) Under nutrition is a state of inadequate intake of essential nutrients which can result in malnourishment. While over nutrition refers to excessive intake of nutrients leading to an imbalance in nutrient consumption.

(ii) Under nutrition results from a lack of access to sufficient food or a limited variety of foods While over nutrition occurs as a result of excessive calorie intake often associated with a diet high in processed foods and beverages.

(iii) Under nutrition is associated with conditions like stunting wasting and micronutrient deficiencies. While over nutrition is linked to health problems such as obesity cardiovascular disease and type two diabetes.

(iii) Under nutrition is mainly seen in low-income countries facing poverty, food insecurity, and lack of access to nutritious food. While Over nutrition is more prevalent in high-income countries where the availability of energy-dense processed foods contributes to excessive calorie intake.

(v) Under nutrition leads to weight loss muscle weakness fatigue and impaired physical and cognitive development, particularly in children. While Over nutrition leads to weight gain obesity and associated health issues.

(vi) Under nutrition is more common in populations experiencing famine war or natural disasters where food scarcity is a primary concern. While Over nutrition is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, excessive portion sizes, and the availability of cheap highly processed foods in urban environments.

Consumer education is the process of teaching people how to buy goods and services wisely and safely. It is the process by which consumers become better informed and knowledgeable about the products and services they purchase.

(i)Empowerment of consumers: Consumer education empowers consumers by providing them with the knowledge and skills to make informed purchase decisions. Through consumer education, consumers learn about their rights and responsibilities as buyers and sellers, ensuring they are confident when making purchases.

(ii)Protection of consumers: Education on consumer safety and governance is very important, it helps to protect consumers from fraud, scams, and unfair business practices. Consumer education helps consumers identify scams and frauds, prevents them from being victims of unfair business practices, and alerting them to the need to take action when necessary.

(iii)Development of a fair marketplace: Consumer education also helps to promote competition among businesses, encouraging them to improve the quality of their products and services and to be more responsive and communicative with their consumers. It creates a level playing field for businesses and consumers, reducing the cases of market abuse and unfair business practices.

(iv)Promotion of consumer responsibility: Consumer education does not only protect consumer rights, but also promotes consumer responsibility. It encourages consumers to take responsibility for their actions and to make responsible purchasing decisions. It educates consumers on the importance of using products and services in a responsible way, promoting a sustainable and environmentally friendly lifestyle.

(iii)Baking powder
(v)Milk (or water)
(vii)Butter (or oil)
(Viii)Vanilla extract (for flavoring)


M – Pericarp
N – Episperm
O – Granule
P – Aleurone layer
Q – Seedling



The major nutrient stored in the part labelled Q is starch

(i) Palm oil – Saturated fatty acids
(ii) Soybean oil – Unsaturated fatty acids
(iii) Coconut oil – Saturated fatty acids
(iv) Olive oil – Unsaturated fatty acids

(i) Proteins act as biological catalysts accelerating chemical reactions in the body.
(ii) Proteins provide structural support to cells and tissues.
(iii) Proteins act as carriers helping to transport various molecules and ions across cell membranes.
(iv) Proteins function as hormones which are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes.
(v) Proteins help to identify and neutralize harmful invaders protecting the body from infections.
(vi) Proteins such as actin and myosin interact with each other to generate the force required for muscle movement.

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