NECO Verified History Questions And Answers 2023

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(i) Trade and Commerce: Establishing diplomatic ties allowed for enhanced trade and commerce between the states. This brought economic benefits to the states involved as they could exchange goods resources and services in a more organized and mutually beneficial manner.

(ii) Security and Defense: Diplomatic ties fostered a sense of unity and cooperation among the states which was essential for collective security and defense. By collaborating and forming alliances they could better protect themselves against common external threats such as raids from other states or external powers.

(iii) Cultural and Social Exchange: Diplomatic ties provided opportunities for cultural and social exchange. States could share knowledge traditions customs and technologies thereby enriching their own societies. This led to an increased understanding and respect for one another’s cultures fostering a sense of unity and shared identity.

(iv) Conflict Resolution: Diplomatic ties provided a platform for peaceful resolution of conflicts that might arise between states. By engaging in diplomatic negotiations disputes and tensions could be resolved through dialogue and compromise rather than resorting to violence and warfare. This promoted stability and prevented the escalation of conflicts.

(v) Communication and Information Exchange: Diplomatic ties facilitated the exchange of information and communication between states. This was important for keeping abreast of developments sharing news intelligence and coordinating actions which was particularly crucial in times of crisis or emergencies.

(vi) Political and Diplomatic Influence: Establishing diplomatic ties allowed states to gain political and diplomatic influence within the region. By forming alliances and maintaining cordial relations they could raise their stature and gain leverage in regional affairs. This enabled them to negotiate better terms in treaties and agreements and have a voice in regional decision-making.

(vii) Preemption of External Influence: By promoting diplomatic ties amongst themselves the various states aimed to preempt external interference or domination. This was particularly significant at a time when European powers were increasingly expanding their colonial ambitions in Africa. By presenting a united front the states could resist external pressures and maintain their sovereignty to a certain extent.


(i) Geographic barriers: Nigeria’s interior region is characterized by dense rainforests vast savannahs and river systems which posed significant challenges for European exploration and penetration. The difficult terrain hindered easy access to the interior leading Europeans to primarily focus their activities along the coastal areas.

(ii) Disease and health risks: The coastal regions were relatively more accessible to European merchants and explorers but they still faced significant health risks from tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. Europeans had limited knowledge and immunity to these diseases making it dangerous for them to venture too far inland.

(iii) Local resistance: The indigenous populations in Nigeria particularly those in the interior often resisted European encroachment. Many Nigerian ethnic groups had well-established social and political structures that were protective of their territories. They viewed Europeans as potential threats to their sovereignty and resisted their presence.

(iv) Slave trade dynamics: During this period the primary focus of European activities in Nigeria was the transatlantic slave trade. The coast served as a major hub for capturing enslaving and transporting African slaves to the Americas. Therefore Europeans strategically concentrated their activities in the coastal areas where they could easily access and trade with local African slave traders.

(v) Lack of economic incentives: The interior regions of Nigeria were not initially attractive to European traders due to the absence of highly sought-after resources like gold and spices. The coastal areas on the other hand provided access to valuable commodities such as palm oil ivory and later on groundnuts which motivated European traders to stay along the coastline.

(vi) Technological limitations: Europeans faced technological limitations in terms of transportation and communication which further restricted their activities to the coast. Without efficient means of transportation and communication venturing into the interior would have been logistically challenging and economically unviable.


(i) Agriculture: Agriculture formed the backbone of the Nupe economy. The kingdom was situated in a fertile region along the Niger River and benefited from favorable agricultural conditions.

(ii) Trade: The Nupe Kingdom was strategically located along important trade routes, serving as a middleman between the Saharan and West African regions. The kingdom facilitated the trade of goods such as salt, kola nuts, cotton, ivory, slaves, and other commodities.

(iii) Tribute: The Nupe Kingdom had a centralized political structure with a hierarchical system of administration. Local chiefs and rulers within the kingdom owed allegiance to the Nupe king, and they paid tribute in the form of goods, livestock, or labor.

(iv) Taxes: Nupe rulers likely imposed taxes on their subjects, including levies on land, livestock, and economic activities.

(v) Craftsmanship and Artistry: The Nupe people were known for their skilled craftsmanship and artistic traditions. They produced a wide range of goods, including pottery, textiles, woodcarvings, metalwork, and leather goods.

(vi) Tribute from Conquered Territories: The Nupe Kingdom expanded through military conquests, incorporating neighboring territories and kingdoms. Conquered regions would have paid tribute to the Nupe rulers, providing additional revenue streams.


(i) British interests in the West African palm oil trade: The British had a strong economic interest in palm oil which was a valuable commodity at the time. Lagos situated in modern-day Nigeria was a major palm oil trading center. The British desired to establish control or influence over this trade to ensure their dominance in the global market.

(ii) The disruption of British trade and influence: The King of Lagos Oba Kosoko had been exerting his authority over British subjects and interfering with British trade. This included several instances of capturing British ships and detaining their crews. These actions were seen as threats to British commercial interests and their imperial prestige leading to a desire for retaliation.

(iii) Slave trade suppression: The British government had been actively working to suppress the transatlantic slave trade which was still prevalent in West Africa. Lagos was known to be involved in the illegal slave trade and the British viewed securing control over the region as a means to weaken and dismantle this trade.

(iv) Humanitarian concerns: Reports of human rights abuses and the mistreatment of captured slaves in Lagos further motivated the British to take action. Humanitarian sentiment combined with the desire to eliminate the slave trade provided a moral justification for the bombardment.

(v) Expansion of British influence: The bombardment of Lagos aimed to enforce British dominance and control over the region. It aligned with broader objectives of expanding the British empire and establishing colonial authority over parts of Africa.


The indirect rule system was adopted in Nigeria for a number of reasons, including:

Lack of funds and sufficient British officials. The British did not have the resources to directly administer all of Nigeria, which was a vast country with a large population. By using the traditional rulers, the British could effectively govern the country with a much smaller number of officials.
Fear of strong opposition. The British were concerned that if they tried to directly rule Nigeria, they would face strong opposition from the local population. By working with the traditional rulers, the British hoped to gain their cooperation and avoid conflict.
Language barrier. The British did not speak the languages of most of the people in Nigeria. By working with the traditional rulers, who were fluent in the local languages, the British could communicate with the people and administer the country more effectively.
To satisfy their economic needs. The British were interested in exploiting the natural resources of Nigeria. By working with the traditional rulers, the British could gain access to these resources and ensure that their economic interests were met.
Vastness of the area with poor roads and communication network. Nigeria is a very large country with poor roads and communication networks. It would have been very difficult and expensive for the British to directly administer such a vast and difficult-to-reach territory. By working with the traditional rulers, the British could effectively govern the country with a much smaller number of officials.
The indirect rule system had both advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, it allowed the British to govern Nigeria with a relatively small number of officials and to avoid conflict with the local population. On the other hand, it perpetuated the power of the traditional rulers and prevented the development of democratic institutions in Nigeria.

The indirect rule system was eventually abandoned in Nigeria after independence in 1960. However, it had a lasting impact on Nigerian society and politics. The traditional rulers who were empowered by the indirect rule system continue to play an important role in Nigerian politics today.


(i) The central legislative council: It was renamed the House of Representatives. The president was the Governor and it had 6 ex- official members. 136 representative members were through the regional houses and 6 special members were nominated by the Governor. The North sent 68 members while the West and East had 34 members which made up the 136 representatives.

(ii) The Central Executive Council: This was known as the council of ministers. The Governor was the president and there were6 official members, 12 ministers of which 4 represented each region. They were in charge of government departments and appointed by the governor on the recommendation of the regional legislature.

(iii) The Regional Legislature: The Northern and Western regions each had a bi-cameral House of Assembly and Chiefs. The Eastern region had only the power to make laws on certain issues like local matters, native courts, health, etc.

(iv) Regional Executive Council: Each region had an executive council. The Lieutenant Governor was the president and it had 5 official members and 9 ministers. They advised the governor but he could accept or reject their advice.

(v) The colony of Lagos was part of the Western region.

(vi) The three provinces were renamed, Western, Eastern and Northern regions.

(vii) The three chief commissioners for each province were renamed Lieutenant governors.


(i) Economic Development: Under the military regime Nigeria experienced significant economic growth. The government implemented policies to diversify the economy focusing on industries such as oil and agriculture. This led to a substantial increase in revenue and the establishment of infrastructure projects across the country.

(ii) Infrastructural Development: The military governments initiated various infrastructural projects that helped in modernizing Nigeria. Numerous roads bridges and highways were constructed improving transportation networks across the country. Additionally the government invested in the development of telecommunications power generation and water supply systems.

(iii) Agricultural Development: The military governments recognized the importance of agriculture in Nigeria’s economy and pursued policies to boost agricultural production. They implemented programs that encouraged mechanization improved irrigation techniques and promoted research and development in the agricultural sector. These initiatives increased food production and reduced dependency on imports.

(iv) Education and Healthcare: The military governments prioritized the improvement of education and healthcare systems. They increased funding for educational institutions constructed schools and universities and expanded access to education for previously marginalized communities. Similarly efforts were made to enhance healthcare services by establishing new clinics hospitals and vaccination programs.

(v) National Unity: The military regimes also focused on promoting national unity and integration in a diverse nation like Nigeria. They encouraged cultural exchanges initiated inter-ethnic dialogues and implemented policies to reduce regional disparities. These efforts played a crucial role in fostering a sense of nationhood and reducing ethnic tensions.

(vi) Foreign Relations: Military governments in Nigeria also made significant strides in foreign policy. They strengthened diplomatic relations with other African countries played an active role in regional and international organizations and pursued policies that enhanced Nigeria’s influence in global affairs. This helped in promoting Nigeria’s image and attracting foreign investments.


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